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Mendelssohn IA, McKee KL, 1988. Hedge P, Kriwoken L K, Patten K, 2003. S. alterniflora is a long-lived perennial that can reproduce both sexually and by vegetative fragmentation. Goranson C E, Ho C-K, Pennings S C, 2004. Managing Spartina in Victoria and Tasmania, Australia. Data Source and Documentation ... Spartina alterniflora Loisel. 75 (4), 1015-1022. demonstrated that the Spartina alterniflora zone expands with increasing tidal amplitude. Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 18(5):592-618. Ecology, 82(10):2830-2845. http://www.esajournals.org/esaonline/?request=get-abstract&issn=0012-9658&volume=082&issue=10&page=2830. Bouma et al. Biological Conservation, 8:105-125. Puccinellia maritima is common in the high marshes of Western Europe. The control of Spartina species. Harrington JA, Harrington LMB, Berlin CJ, 1997. The effects of aeration on the growth of Spartina alterniflora, Loisel. Control of smooth cordgrass with Rodeo® in a southwestern Washington estuary. Spartina Task Force, 1994. The Dike Island Gun Club planted S. alterniflora in Padilla Bay in the 1940s to stabilize an island in the south bay. Comparison of chemical and mechanical control efforts for invasive Spartina in Willapa Bay, WA. Environmental gradients and herbivores feeding preferences in coastal salt marshes. Biological Invasions. S. alterniflora was established in the upper half of the neap range and S. patens in the spring tide zone above neap highs. Ding JianQing, Mack RN, Lu Ping, Ren MingXun, Huang HongWen, 2008. Report for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington D.C. and the National Sea Grant College Program, Connecticut Sea Grant. Tertiary sulfonium compounds like DMSP are distributed in algae, in grasses like Spartina alterniflora, and in Wollastonia biflora (Otte et al., 2004). Waders and waterfowl will lose important foraging and refuge habitat. This strategy helps ensure outcrossing. and Phragmites australis Cav. Hedge P, Kriwoken LK, Patten K, 2003. Characterization of exotic Spartina communities in Washington State. This system, with its salt marsh and mangrove communities, operated for over 10 years and was the subject of detailed status analyses after 4 and 8 years of operation and is described in depth in Chapter 22. Plants rhizomatous; rhizomes elongate, flaccid, white, scales inflated, not or only slightly imbricate. It also has the capacity to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, including: inundation up to approximately 12 hours a day, pH levels between 4.5and 8.5 and salinity levels of 10-60 ppt, although 10-20 ppt allows for optimal growth (Landin, 1991). The use of 1-5% wetter or surfactant with the glyphosate application improved the impact of treatment (Norman and Patten, 1995; Patten, 2002; Roberts and Pullin, 2006). invasions in Pacific estuaries, USA. Ebasco Environmental, 1993. Ecological Engineering. Low soil temperature can suppress or delay flowering period and reduce seed production in Spartina. In European marshes, the low marsh may give way to a diverse high marsh of Halimione portulacoides, Limonium sp., Suaeda maritima, and Festuca sp., among others. Plantsgrowing under good conditions reach 8 feet (2.5 m) tall, while thosegrowing in the high salt marshes, especially at edges of salt pans, maybe only 16 inches (40 cm) tall, including the inflorescence [6]. Hubbard JCE, 1965. Spartina alterniflora, smooth cordgrass is a perennial deciduous grass, which is found in intertidal wetlands. 26. Since the waters of the Washington coast are cooler than those in the species’ native Eastern American range, temperature may regulate flowering and seed production (Ebasco Environmental, 1992). Mendelssohn I A, McKee K L, 1988. The 8th International Zebra Mussel & Other Nuisance Species Conference, Sacramento, California. A review of Spartina management in Washington State, US. 2010, EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species, Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Benefits from human association (i.e. In the past few decades, Spartina alterniflora has become one of the dominant species in the coastal wetlands in China due to its unique physiological and ecological characteristics (e.g., higher growth rate, higher net primary yield, and higher salt tolerance) compared to native plants [13,14]. Introduced Cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora Losiel. Another impact of increased sediment accretion is the resultant change in water circulation patterns. Roberts PD, Pullin AS, 2006. Ecology, 72(1):138-148. 22. Within its native range, S. alterniflora became highly regarded as an erosion control tool, which led to it being widely introduced to other areas (Simenstad and Thom, 1995). 23 (3), 391-400. However, Cohen and Carlton (1995) have suggested that the earliest report of S. alterniflora occurred around 1911, suggesting that solid ballast material is the most likely transport mechanism. This tangle of roots allows the trees to handle the daily rise and fall of tides, which means that most mangroves get flooded at least twice per day. C.S.B. Weed Technology. Estuaries. Non-indigenous populations of S. alterniflora are also documented in Australia, New Zealand, China, France, the Netherlands and United Kingdom. Seed Viability in Two Atlantic Coast Populations of Spartina alterniflora. USA. 17 (10), 1972-1978. S. alterniflora has also been investigated for use within the paper production industry (Ebasco Environmental, 1993). 1,3. in southern Florida (Tomlinson, 1986), Guyana (Martyn, 1934) and Maranhão, Brazil (Santos, 1989). A similar situation has developed in the last decades on the north-west coast of the United States, where introduced Spartina alterniflora is invading mud flats and reducing the available area for shellfish. High marsh vegetation generally is less tolerant of salinity than Spartina and grows better at higher elevations in the marsh and in areas farther away from the ocean, where salinity is diluted by freshwater. Evaluation of mechanical methods and herbicide adjuvant treatments for the effective control of Spartina spp. S. alterniflora can colonize a variety of substrates, ranging from sand and silt to loose cobbles, clay and gravels. Population variation in growth response to flooding of three marsh grasses. This means that the introduction of S. alterniflora to an estuary or coastline can occur via either natural spread, due to tidal conditions or via human induced actions such as shipping (ballast water) or intentional planting (e.g. Wetlands, 12:147-156. 2007). Otherwise, no significant difficulties were encountered. by Mumford TF, Peyton P, Sayce JR, Harbell S], 15-20. Sheaths mostly glabrous, throat glabrous or minutely pilose, lower sheaths often wrinkled; ligules 1-2 mm; blades to 60 cm long, 3-25 mm wide, lower blades shorter than those above, usually flat basally, becoming involute distally, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces glabrous or sparsely pilose, margins usually smooth, sometimes slightly scabrous, apices attenuate. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 58(1/3):140-148. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00988472. Glumes straight, sides usually glabrous, sometimes pilose near the base or appressed pubescent, hairs to 0.3 mm; lower glumes 4-10 mm, acute; upper glumes 8-14 mm, keels glabrous, lateral veins not present, apices acuminate to obtuse, occasionally apiculate; lemmas glabrous or sparsely pilose, apices usually acuminate; paleas slightly exceeding the lemmas, thin, papery, apices obtuse or rounded; anthers 3-6 mm. Effects of application of glyphosate on cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, and adjacent native salt marsh vegetation in Padilla Bay, Washington. Zonation of Spartina patens and Spartina alterniflora in a New England salt marsh. Morris showed that rhizome-shoot ratios ranged between 0.35 at a high rate of N supply to 0.93 at a low rate of N supply. During the first 50 years, the population slowly expanded, but from 1945 to 1988 the plant became established throughout the bay, forming vast meadows (Sayce, 1988). S. alterniflora did not survive the first and second winters in the polyhaline zone but did survive in the marine zone. Recent control methods, during 2005/6 have notably reduced the extent of the Willapa population (Murphy et al., 2007). Glumes straight, sides usually glabrous, sometimes pilose near the base or appressed pubescent, hairs to 0.3 mm; lower glumes 4-10 mm, acute; upper glumes 8-14 mm, keels glabrous, lateral veins not present, apices acuminate to obtuse, occasionally apiculate; lemmas glabrous or sparsely pilose, apices usually acuminate; paleas slightly exceeding the lemmas, thin, papery, apices obtuse or rounded; anthers 3-6 mm. American Journal of Botany, 81(3):307-313. Seeds and rhizomes spread via spring and winter tides. This group is characterized by widespread species more frequently found in the northern, tropical part of Latin America, but which extend a long way southward, such as Sesuvium portulacastrum and Batis maritima, Spartina alterniflora and Sporobolus virginicus. The roles of Spartina species in New Zealand. Patten K, 2002. USA. Here, the difficulty lay with a small J. roemerianus colony that provided virtually no growth in about a year of operation. In Puget Sound, WA, S. alterniflora was introduced to stabilize coastlines and increase the vegetative cover of mudflats to reduce wave impact. Winter tilling produced the most effective control intervention, followed by disking and finally crushing. Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass); infestation of densely packed plants. Journal of Ecology, UK, 75(4):1037-1048. A small population was eradicated from Humbolt Bay. in influencing the growth of Spartina alterniflora Loisel (1) because root oxy-gen concentrations, renewed by a well-developed aerenchyma (air-space tissue) system, have been indicated in excess of that needed for aerobic root respiration (2). However, seedlings generally begin to tiller late in their first session. Spartina Workshop Record, Washington Sea Grant Program, University of Washington, Seattle, pp. 110 (1), 99-108. (2014) isolated DMSP from a green sea alga and found that it suppresses Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Transfer was also entirely by block methods, and during the early 1990s, the system had a mature diversity of about 50 species of emerged aquatics. Noxious emergent plant environmental impact statement. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. alterniflora growth. Among marshes of similar tidal amplitudes, the upper limit of … Because of their ability to trap sediment via decreasing wave energy, Spartina species have been introduced to many parts of the world for estuary reclamation and for erosion control (Partridge, 1987). It forms the dominant salt-marsh community in salt water, normally forming monoculture meadows where conditions allow. Grevstad F S, Strong D R, Garcia-Rossi D, Switzer R W, Wecker M S, 2003. Differences in MTR among marsh locations accounted for 70 and 68% of the statistical variation in the upper and lower limits, respec- tively, of S. alterniflora growth. Final Report, submitted to Washington State Department of Ecology, Olympia. (-% = increase in densities, +% = reduction in densities), spp. In: Salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris). A review of Spartina management in Washington State, US. Salinity, mostly sodium chloride, stresses plants by altering osmotic potential that interferes with water and nutrient (N) uptake. Progress of the 2006 Spartina eradication program. var. A literature review of rapid response options for the control of ABWMAC listed species and related taxa in Australia. Impact of high herbivore densities on introduced smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, invading San Francisco Bay, California. 23 (3), 520-524. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Corresponding Author . Roberts and Pullin (2006; 2007) have, using systematic review and meta-analysis, extensively reviewed the efficacy of the control methods available for S. alterniflora. Ayres D R, Smith D L, Zaremba K, Klohr S, Strong D R, 2004. The movement of Spartina is prohibited in most states of USA. Estuaries. Care must be taken to remove both the shoot and root for effective control. Pollen swamping of the native California cordgrass (S. Foliosa) by introduced smooth cordgrass (S. Alterniflora) in San Francisco Bay. ), saltwort (Batis spp. The majority of trials captured by Roberts and Pullin (2006) review of Spartina control investigated the impact of either glyphosate or imazapyr. McEnnulty FR, Bax NJ, Britta S, Campbell ML, undated. 1, Lingxuan Meng. Hedge P, Kriwoken L, 1997. Plant zonation in irregularly flooded salt marshes: relative importance of stress tolerance and biological interactions. Rates of change in the numbers of dunlin, Calidris alpina, wintering in British estuaries in relation to the spread of Spartina anglica. Does exotic Spartina alterniflora change benthic invertebrate assemblages? Altrazine effects on estuarine macrophytes Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus. Cutting alone is an effective control intervention of S. alterniflora, producing, on average, an overall decease in stem density of 68.1%. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Technical Report No. S. alterniflora can spread via seed dispersal or vegetative fragments. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. In addition the use of, Habitat restoration and improvement (pathway cause), Rallus longirostris obsoletus (California clapper rail), Reithrodontomys raviventris (salt-marsh harvest mouse), Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Finally, in 1988, an Everglades mesocosm with both salt and fresh marshes was established in a greenhouse in Washington, DC. Patten K, 2002. (undated), Reason: wetland mitigation and shoreline stabilisation, Initially established, treated deemed eradicated in 1997, Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. Further investigation of the differing methods of application used to apply glyphosate showed that aerial application did not significantly reduce the density of S. alterniflora. 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