Luxembourg. Croatia joined on 1 July 2013, following ratification of the 2011 Accession Treaty by all other EU countries.  On 3 October 1990, the reunification of East and West Germany brought East Germany into the Community without increasing the number of member states. These steps are primarily presided over by the European Commission (Enlargement Commissioner and DG Enlargement), but the actual negotiations are technically conducted between the Union's Member States and the candidate country. Ms Lippert, who is an expert in EU enlargement, insisted that Scotland would not be put “in the same basket” as Western Balkan states looking to join, such as Montenegro, Serbia, and Albania. The EU and NATO offered a guarantee of this, and the EU was also seen as vital to ensuring the economic success of those countries. The Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean became part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands on 2007-02-22. Since then, the EU's membership has grown to twenty-seven, with the latest member state being Croatia, which joined in July 2013. Belgium. , accession process of new countries to the European Union, Adélie Land, Crozet Islands, Kerguelen Islands and Saint-Paul-and-Amsterdam Islands merged to become the French Southern and Antarctic Lands on 1955-08-06. 5 Answers. A country that wishes to join the EU addresses its application to the Council, which asks the Commission to submit an opinion. The EU grew out of the European Economic Community (EEC) which was established by the Treaties of Rome in 1957.  However François Mitterrand initially opposed their membership fearing they were not ready and it would water the community down to a free trade area.. The Community later became the European Union in 1993 by virtue of the Maastricht Treaty, and established standards for new entrants so their suitability could be judged. The European Commission is sensitive to the issue which was addressed in a speech by the EU's High Representative/Vice-President Federica Mogherini at the European Parliament Plenary Session on the Western Balkan Strategy: " shared, unequivocal, concrete perspective for European Union integration for each and every one of the six partners. The UK left the EU on 31 January 2020*, the first former EU country. Ease of accession depends on the state: how integrated it is with the EU beforehand, the state of its economy and public institutions, any outstanding political issues with the EU and (historically) how much law to date the EU has built up that the acceding state must adopt.  Negotiations with Turkey are ongoing, but the pace has slowed due to objections from the EU to the Turkish government's response to the 2016 coup d'état attempt.. There is no requirement in the UK to hold a referendum on a new country joining the EU - but it can do that if it chooses to. With the end of the Cold War in 1989, that obstacle was removed, and the desire to pursue membership grew stronger. A veto on the new countries joining has been in place case ever since the … Article 49 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU) establishes which states may apply; Seven of the 13 Member States who joined the EU since 2004 have already joined the euro area, most recently Lithuania on 1 … The European Union (EU) is a unification of 28 member states (including the United Kingdom) united to create a political and economic community throughout Europe. The process from application for association agreement through accession has taken far longer, as much as several decades (Turkey for example first applied for association in the 1950s and has yet to conclude accession negotiations). Before 2010, Romania and Bulgaria were the newest, joining in 2007. Algeria, which was an integral part of France, had a special relationship with the Community. Netherlands. the above, without the newly independent: French Guinea, French Cameroons, Togo, Mali Federation, Malagasy Republic, Belgian Congo, Italian Somaliland, Dahomey, Niger, Upper Volta, Ivory Coast, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon, Mauritania, Ruanda-Urundi, the above, without the newly independent: Algeria, the above, without the Netherlands Antilles, the above, Ireland, United Kingdom, Gibraltar, Denmark. Of the bloc's 28 member countries… On 2007-02-22, they became separate territories but France retained application of EU law there, and their EU OMR status was confirmed in the Treaty of Lisbon, which entered into force on 2009-01-01. These serve as a basis for the council to make decisions on negotiations or their extension to other candidates. Negotiations are typically a matter of the candidate country convincing the EU that its laws and administrative capacity are sufficient to execute European law, which can be implemented as seen fit by the member states. Austria is a member country of the EU since January 1, 1995 with its geographic size of 83,879 km², and population number 8,576,234, as per 2015. Page last updated at 09:54 GMT, Monday, 12 March 2007. Albania, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia are all recognized as official candidates and in negotiation, negotiations with Turkey are frozen. The EU’s common currency is the euro.  States that did not, in 2018, recognise Kosovo include fellow Western Balkan applicant, Serbia, and other EU members: Spain, Slovakia, Cyprus, Romania, and Greece. The other Balkan countries have been told they can join the EU one day, if they meet the criteria. All those countries will have the massive language barrier (English is the international language), and may not be so welcoming / no community already there. As part of the deal for British entry, France agreed to allow the EEC its own monetary resources. On 18 October 2019, France vetoed starting of negotiations with Albania and North Macedonia, citing problems with current enlargement process. Often this will involve time-lines before the Acquis Communautaire (European regulations, directives & standards) has to be fully implemented. The other member countries are: Greece and Turkey (1952), Germany (1955), Spain (1982), the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland (1999), Bulgaria, Estonia, … 1 decade ago. joining order and dates: 1957. Austria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €337.162 billion, as per 2015. Ten years since the last major expansion, four more countries in line to join. Decisions were taken by the Council on a proposal from the Commission. ", in: eur-lex.europa.eu –, Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the, Post-Brexit United Kingdom relations with the European Union, Statistics relating to enlargement of the European Union, 1973 enlargement of the European Communities, 1981 enlargement of the European Communities, 1986 enlargement of the European Communities, Netherlands Antilles Association Convention, Potential enlargement of the European Union, presidency of the Council of the European Union, Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, "State of the Union: ROADMAP FOR A MORE UNITED, STRONGER AND MORE DEMOCRATIC UNION 2017", "Juncker in the 2017 State of the EU: We must maintain a credible enlargement perspective for the Western Balkans", "Serbia on course for EU by 2025, top EU official says", "PRESIDENCY CONCLUSIONS : Copenhagen European Council - 21-22 June 1993", Article : A success for Konstantinos Karamanli, "EU anger as France blocks move into Balkans", "6 countries write to Juncker to support EU enlargement reform", "European Commission - Enlargement: Archives Country Profiles", Timetable for accession negotiations by chapter and by country (1998–2004), Beyond Enlargement Fatigue? The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was proposed by Robert Schuman in his declaration on 9 May 1950 and involved the pooling of the coal and steel industries of France and West Germany. The movement westward of some of the labour force of the newly acceded countries that occurred in the aftermath of the enlargement initially spawned clichés among the public opinion and media of some western countries (such as the "Polish plumber"), despite the generally conceded benefit to the economies concerned. Only then can a new country join the EU. ... with the EU; the country has previously flirted with the idea of leaving the eurozone in a … Estonia … Its capital is Vienna and the official language in Austria is German. Belgian Congo, Ruanda-Urundi, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, French Tunisia, French Morocco, Adélie Land, Comoro Islands, Chad, Gabon, Middle Congo, Ubangi-Shari, French India, French Oceania, the above without the newly independent: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, French Tunisia, French Morocco, French India, the above, French Algeria, Réunion, French Guiana, Martinique, Guadeloupe. Germany. (Full List of EU Members) The European Union currently has 27 member countries, after the departure of the UK on January 31, 2020. Click on each country to view current estimates (live population clock), historical data, and projected figures. Saint Barthélemey is a French-speaking Caribbean island. To join the EU, a state needs to fulfil economic and political conditions called the Copenhagen criteria (after the Copenhagen summit in June 1993), which require a stable democratic government that respects the rule of law, and its corresponding freedoms and institutions. Before a country applies for membership it typically signs an association agreement to help prepare the country for candidacy and eventual membership. As of 2020[update], accession negotiations are under way with Albania (since 2020), Montenegro (since 2012), North Macedonia (since 2020), Serbia (since 2014) and Turkey (since 2005). The process of enlargement is sometimes referred to as European integration. Austrians comprise 1.7% of the total EU population. There was no enlargement until the 1970s. "The provisions of Part Four of the Treaty were applied to Surinam, by virtue of a Supplementary Act of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to complete its instrument of ratification, from 1 September 1962 to 16 July 1976. Over time, more and more countries decided to join. Opinion polls suggest 26% of people surveyed in the region don’t believe their countries will ever join the EU. The Western Balkans have been prioritised for membership since emerging from war during the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s. It does not mean that the candidate country is guaranteed to join the EU as I will explain below. The following is an example of the accession process—Estonia's path to membership from its declaration of independence from the Soviet Union in November 1991 with recognition from the EU the same month to membership in May 2004. Also in 1993 the European Economic Area was established with the EFTA states except Switzerland. The year 1985, however, saw the first time a territory voted to leave the Community, when Greenland was granted home rule by Denmark and the territory used its new powers and voted to withdraw from the Community (See member state territories). Whether a country is European or not is subject to political assessment by the EU institutions. 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