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After several days of maneuver and stalemate, Pausanias ordered a night-time retreat towards the Allies' original positions. The tyrants themselves faced a difficult task; they had to deflect the worst of their fellow citizens' hatred, while staying in the favour of the Persians. [10] A negative view of Herodotus was passed on to Renaissance Europe, though he remained well read. [156] Mardonius remained in Thessaly, knowing an attack on the Isthmus was pointless, while the Allies refused to send an army outside the Peloponessus. Following the Persian withdrawal from Europe and the Greek victory at Mycale, Macedon and the city-states of Ionia regained their independence. [161] Seeing that the Persians might never have a better opportunity to attack, Mardonius ordered his whole army forward. By these terms, the Ionians were still Persian subjects, as they had been. [215] [101] Thebes, though not explicitly 'Medising', was suspected of being willing to aid the Persians once the invasion force arrived. There was also perhaps a feeling that securing long-term security for the Asian Greeks would prove impossible. The Spartans were supposedly of the view that, with the liberation of mainland Greece and the Greek cities of Asia Minor, the war's purpose had already been reached. The first Persian invasion of Greece, during the Persian Wars, began in 492 BC, and ended with the decisive Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. Much of Diodorus's writing about this period is drawn from the much earlier Greek historian Ephorus, who also wrote a universal history. This invasion and a subsequent one by Darius' successor Xerxes led to campaigns known as the Persian Wars, conflicts which contained some of the most famous battles in history. Sometime after 490 BC, the humiliated Demaratus had chosen to go into exile, and had made his way to Darius's court in Susa. A Greek tyrant of Miletus, Aristagoras, first tried to ingratiate himself with the Persians and then led a revolt against them. [212] Athens, however, sided with the Persians, which led in turn to another large-scale conflict in Greece, the Corinthian War. [23][24], A few physical remnants of the conflict have been found by archaeologists. After the Persians had loaded their cavalry (their strongest soldiers) on the ships, the 10,000 Athenian soldiers descended from the hills around the plain. This dual strategy was adopted by the congress. [159], When Mardonius heard the Allied army was on the march, he retreated into Boeotia, near Plataea, trying to draw the Allies into open terrain where he could use his cavalry. [48][53] The 'hoplites' were foot soldiers usually drawn from the members of the middle-classes (in Athens called the zeugites), who could afford the equipment necessary to fight in this manner. In what Holland characterises as, in essence, the world's first referendum, Aristides was ostracised, and Themistocles's policies were endorsed. [105] Early in spring, it moved to Abydos where it was joined with the armies of the western satrapies. The Delian League continued to campaign against Persia for the next three decades, beginning with the expulsion of the remaining Persian garrisons from Europe. The Anopoea path was defended by roughly 1000 Phocians, according to Herodotus, who reportedly fled when confronted by the Persians. answer choices . [30] These settlers were from three tribal groups: the Aeolians, Dorians and Ionians. Why did the Persians lose the Persian Wars? [178], Most of the Athenian troops were sent straight away to pursue the Persians. Taking advantage of his incapacitation, the powerful Alcmaeonid family arranged for him to be prosecuted for the failure of the campaign. [195] Diodorus, on the other hand, claims that in the aftermath of Salamis, a full-blown peace treaty (the "Peace of Callias") was agreed with the Persians. [44] In the past, Greek states had often been ruled by tyrants, but that form of government was on the decline. [7] As historian Tom Holland has it, "For the first time, a chronicler set himself to trace the origins of a conflict not to a past so remote so as to be utterly fabulous, nor to the whims and wishes of some god, nor to a people's claim to manifest destiny, but rather explanations he could verify personally. [95] Demaratus would from then on act as an advisor to Darius, and later Xerxes, on Greek affairs, and accompanied Xerxes during the second Persian invasion. [207] This disastrous conflict, which dragged on for 27 years, would eventually result in the utter destruction of Athenian power, the dismemberment of the Athenian empire, and the establishment of a Spartan hegemony over Greece. [22], Further scattered details can be found in Pausanias's Description of Greece, while the Byzantine Suda dictionary of the 10th century AD preserves some anecdotes found nowhere else. The Persians then burnt the city and temples of the Naxians. [190] At the Battle of the Eurymedon in Pamphylia, the Athenians and allied fleet achieved a stunning double victory, destroying a Persian fleet and then landing the ships' marines to attack and rout the Persian army. Elsewhere in the empire, Cyrus identified elite native groups such as the priesthood of Judea – to help him rule his new subjects. [90] Under the guidance of Miltiades, the general with the greatest experience of fighting the Persians, the Athenian army marched to block the two exits from the plain of Marathon. The catalyst for the first Persian war stemmed from a revolt by Greek Ionians. Key Points. It is remembered because the underdog won, at least initially. It is possible that the Athenians had attempted to negotiate with the Persians previously. [127] States that were opposed to Persia thus began to coalesce around these two city states. The allied Greeks followed up their success by destroying the rest of the Persian fleet at the Battle of Mycale, before expelling Persian garrisons from Sestos (479 BC) and Byzantium (478 BC). [155] Mardonius over-wintered in Boeotia and Thessaly; the Athenians were thus able to return to their burnt-out city for the winter. [126], In 481 BC, Xerxes sent ambassadors to city states throughout Greece, asking for food, land, and water as tokens of their submission to Persia. The Persian Wars gave the Greeks a new feeling of confidence. [26] These cities were Miletus, Myus and Priene in Caria; Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedos, Teos, Clazomenae, Phocaea and Erythrae in Lydia; and the islands of Samos and Chios. These numbers are by ancient standards consistent, and this could be interpreted that a number around 1,200 is correct. The remnants of the Persian army fled to their ships and left the battle. [49][54] The heavy armour usually included a breastplate or a linothorax, greaves, a helmet, and a large round, concave shield (the aspis or hoplon). [5] In 490 BC a second force was sent to Greece, this time across the Aegean Sea, under the command of Datis and Artaphernes. [8][9] Nevertheless, Thucydides chose to begin his history where Herodotus left off (at the Siege of Sestos) and felt Herodotus's history was accurate enough not to need re-writing or correcting. Further, he suggests that Theopompus was actually referring to a treaty that had allegedly been negotiated with Persia in 423 BC. [60] Artaphernes also advised the Athenians that they should receive back the Athenian tyrant Hippias. [186], In the meantime, the Spartans had sent Dorkis to Byzantium with a small force, to take command of the Allied force. The First Persian War In around 492 B.C., a large number of members of the colony in Thracy returned to Athens, as the Persian army that Darius had left there after retreating from Scythes in southern Russia, started their attempt to conquer the colony. but the first attack was around 490 B.C. Which chart helps to identify common causes and special causes of variations? In 499 BC, the tyrant of Miletus, Aristagoras, embarked on an expedition to conquer the island of Naxos, with Persian support;[4] however, the expedition was a debacle and, preempting his dismissal, Aristagoras incited all of Hellenic Asia Minor into rebellion against the Persians. [174] The Peloponnesians sailed home, but the Athenians remained to attack the Chersonesos, still held by the Persians. On the final day of the battle, the remaining Allies sallied forth from the wall to meet the Persians in the wider part of the pass to slaughter as many Persians as they could, but eventually they were all killed or captured. When the wax was removed, a message was found scratched on the wooden backing, warning the Spartans of Xerxes's plans. [96] Xerxes crushed the Egyptian revolt, and very quickly resumed the preparations for the invasion of Greece. [91], After the failure of the first invasion, Darius began raising a huge new army with which he intended to subjugate Greece completely. [213] This humiliating treaty, which undid all the Greek gains of the previous century, sacrificed the Greeks of Asia Minor so that the Spartans could maintain their hegemony over Greece. [122], The Spartan king Demaratus had been stripped of his kingship in 491 BC, and replaced with his cousin Leotychides. [140] The Allies withstood two full days of Persian attacks, including those by the elite Persian Immortals. Furthermore, to prevent the Persians bypassing Thermopylae by sea, the Athenian and allied navies could block the straits of Artemisium. Who were fightimg in the Persian Wars? [62][63] The mission was a debacle,[64] and sensing his imminent removal as tyrant, Aristagoras chose to incite the whole of Ionia into rebellion against the Persian king Darius the Great. This would prove to be the source of much trouble for the Greeks and Persians alike. The Battle of Marathon was a decisive victory for the greatly outnumbered Greeks, and the legend of the messenger reporting the Greek victory is the source of the modern marathon race. Cyrus was a grandson of Astyages and was supported by part of the Median aristocracy. [61] The Athenians ambassadors apparently accepted to comply, and to give "Earth and Water". The Athenians eventually caught Artayctes, killing some of the Persians with him but taking most of them, including Artayctes, captive. [191], Towards the end of the 460s BC, the Athenians took the ambitious decision to support a revolt in the Egyptian satrapy of the Persian empire. ** The image above shows a Greek hoplite and Persian warrior fighting each other. [141], Simultaneous with the battle at Thermopylae, an Allied naval force of 271 triremes defended the Straits of Artemisium against the Persians, thus protecting the flank of the forces at Thermopylae. [41] He first attacked Phocaea; the Phocaeans decided to abandon their city entirely and sail into exile in Sicily, rather than become Persian subjects (although many later returned). When Xerxes was eventually persuaded that the Allies intended to contest the pass, he sent his troops to attack. However, in 486 BC, his Egyptian subjects revolted, and the revolt forced an indefinite postponement of any Greek expedition. Other ancient authors agree with Herodotus' number of 1,207. The final major existing source for the period is the universal history (Bibliotheca historica) of the 1st century BC Sicilian, Diodorus Siculus. [138], When the Persians arrived at Thermopylae in mid-August, they initially waited for three days for the Allies to disperse. Battle of Salamis, (480 bc), battle in the Greco-Persian Wars in which a Greek fleet defeated much larger Persian naval forces in the straits at Salamis, between the island of … [49] More experienced naval powers had by this time also begun to use a manoeuver known as diekplous. [107], The numbers of troops that Xerxes mustered for the second invasion of Greece have been the subject of endless dispute. Although he was acquitted, his reputation was tarnished and he was not restored to his command. For six days, the Persians attacked the walls, with losses on both sides; however, on the seventh day two reputable Eretrians opened the gates and betrayed the city to the Persians. [216], "Persian Wars" redirects here. The first war, in 490, was an invasion of Greece led by the Persian King Darius. There were 4 major battles of the Persian Wars. [56], The Persian naval forces were primarily provided by the seafaring people of the empire: Phoenicians, Egyptians, Cilicians and Cypriots. [39] By crossing the Halys, Croesus had indeed destroyed a great empire – his own. The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in 547 BC. [210] In 404 BC when Cyrus the Younger attempted to seize the Persian throne, he recruited 13,000 Greek mercenaries from all over the Greek world, of which Sparta sent 700–800, believing they were following the terms of the defence pact and unaware of the army's true purpose. There is a possibility that the Achaemenid ruler now saw the Athenians as subjects who had solemnly promised submission through the gift of "Earth and Water", and that subsequent actions by the Athenians, such as their intervention in the Ionian revolt, were perceived as a break of oath, and a rebellion to the central authority of the Achaemenid ruler. Exactly what happened is unclear; Thucydides gives few details, although later writers added plenty of lurid insinuations. [128] This confederation had powers both to send envoys to ask for assistance and to dispatch troops from the member states to defensive points after joint consultation. This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 16:19. These works generally claim that the Persians could have launched no more than around 600 warships into the Aegean. In his digression on the pentekontaetia, his aim is to explain the growth of Athenian power, and such a treaty, and the fact that the Delian allies were not released from their obligations after it, would have marked a major step in the Athenian ascendancy. Who wrote about the history of the Persian Wars? Sparta led city-states in the Peloponnesian League. The First Persian Gulf War lasted from 1980 to 1988 and pitted Iraq against Iran. [84], In 490 BC, Datis and Artaphernes (son of the satrap Artaphernes) were given command of an amphibious invasion force, and set sail from Cilicia. [112][113][114] Other recent works on the Persian Wars reject this number, viewing 1,207 as more of a reference to the combined Greek fleet in the Iliad. [21], ^ i: The exact period covered by the term "Greco-Persian Wars" is open to interpretation, and usage varies between academics; the Ionian Revolt and Wars of the Delian League are sometimes excluded. [119] Themistocles proposed that the silver should be used to build a new fleet of triremes, ostensibly to assist in a long running war with Aegina. [87] The fleet then proceeded to island-hop across the rest of the Aegean on its way to Eretria, taking hostages and troops from each island. [170], Mycale was, in many ways, the beginning of a new phase in the conflict, in which the Greeks would go on the offensive against the Persians. However, while seeking to destroy the combined Greek fleet, the Persians suffered a severe defeat at the Battle of Salamis. Darius began by sending envoys to the Greek city-states, asking them to pledge their loyalty to the Persian Empire, in 490 BCE. [203] On the other hand, if there was indeed some kind of accommodation, Thucydides's failure to mention it is odd. [146], The Persians had now captured most of Greece, but Xerxes had perhaps not expected such defiance; his priority was now to complete the war as quickly as possible. Plutarch suggests that in the aftermath of the victory at the Eurymedon, Artaxerxes had agreed to a peace treaty with the Greeks, even naming Callias as the Athenian ambassador involved. Sparta and Athens had a leading role in the congress but the interests of all the states influenced defensive strategy. [135] However, the Peloponnesian cities made fall-back plans to defend the Isthmus of Corinth should it come to it, while the women and children of Athens were evacuated to the Peloponnesian city of Troezen. [48] Lightly armed skirmishers, the psiloi also comprised a part of Greek armies growing in importance during the conflict; at the Battle of Plataea, for instance, they may have formed over half the Greek army. [11] Nevertheless, there are still some historians who believe Herodotus made up much of his story. Furthermore, Athens had already demonstrated their superiority at sea at the Eurymedon and Salamis-in-Cyprus, so any legal limitations for the Persian fleet were nothing more than "de jure" recognition of military realities. Achaemenid Empire of Persia Athens led the city-states of Asia Minor and the Aegean islands in the Delian League. The resultant first Persian invasion of Greece consisted of two main campaigns. Ancient Romans used aggressive methods to expand the boundaries of its territories. [200] The ancient sources therefore disagree as to whether there was an official peace or not, and, if there was, when it was agreed. Being informed by the envoys, he gave them an answer whereof the substance was, that if the Athenians gave king Darius earth and water, then he would make alliance with them; but if not, his command was that they should begone. Just why Greece was coveted by Persia is unclear. [43], In the years following their conquest, the Persians found the Ionians difficult to rule. The Persian wars against Greece were caused because the Darius, the Persian king, wanted to expand their empire. [160] The Allied army, under the command of the regent Pausanias, stayed on high ground above Plataea to protect themselves against such tactics. It was instigated by Aristagoras, economic burdens, and a feeling of being treated unfairly by the Empire. 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